Posts Tagged ‘CEDAW’

Today the National Commission for Lebanese women and UNFPA, worked hard on disseminating the Concluding observations published by the United Nations Committee on Lebanon. The concluding observations are a kind of ” findings”  that cover how each country is implementing the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination, #CEDAW, this year these findings ” highlight positive developments ”  and most importantly highlight ”  main matters of concern and recommendations”.

UN committee give those observations after holding discussions with the government delegation and the NGOs of the country.


The Last recommendation of this batch was already implemented by NCLW and UNFPA: Disseminating the observations widely! Picture taken by Rita Azzi 


This year the main area of concern were numerous:

I am listing their titles below:

  • Refugee, asylum-seeking and stateless women\
  • Parliament
  • Withdrawal of reservations
  • Constitutional framework
  • Legislative framework
  • Access to Justice
  • National machinery for the advancement of women
  • Stereotypes
  • Violence against women
  • Trafficking and exploitation of prostitution
  • Participation in political and public life
  • Education
  • Employment
  • Women migrant workers in domestic service\
  • Women Palestine refugees
  • Health
  • Rural women
  • Marriage and family relations

as for the main areas of concerns: here is their translation to arabic for those who wish to get a quick look! (Lebanon cedaw Areas of concerns in arabic Rita Chemaly)

I am copy pasting for those who are interested in the Principal areas of concern and recommendations as they were published in the document of the UN #cedaw committee. 

Refugee, asylum-seeking and stateless women

  1. The Committee commends the State party for the open border and reception policy that it has had for years regarding refugees from Palestine, Iraq and Syria, for hosting over 2 million refugees and its remarkable and sustained efforts to ensure the protection of refugees and asylum seekers. However, it takes note of the policy paper on Syrian displacement in Lebanon approved by the Council of Ministers on 23 October 2014 and the three main priorities for managing the displacement crisis. The Committee is concerned that the 1962 Law regulating the Entry, Stay and Exit to/in/from Lebanon does not distinguish between asylum seekers/refugees and migrants. The Committee is further concerned about the high number of reported cases of child, early and forced marriage among Syrian refugee women and girls and the lack of official data on this phenomenon, as well as on the number of stateless persons in Lebanon.
  2. The Committee recommends, in line with its general recommendation No. 32 (2014) on the gender-related dimensions of refugee status, asylum, nationality and statelessness of women, that the State party:

(a)     In the implementation of its policy paper on Syrian displacement in Lebanon approved by the Council of Ministers on 23 October 2014, ensure that the principle of non-refoulement is upheld, including for women and girls in need of international protection, by ensuring access to its territory, establishing gender-sensitive asylum procedures, and including gender-based violence as a ground for asylum, in line with Articles 2 and 3 of the Convention;

(b)     Review the 1962 Law regulating the Entry, Stay and Exit to/in/from Lebanon, to distinguish between the protection needs of asylum seeking and refugee women on one hand and migrant women on the other hand;

(c)      Seek technical support for the establishment of a data collection system on incidents of gender-based violence against women, in particular sexual violence, and incidents of child, early and forced marriages of refugee women and girls, and provide victims with medical and psychosocial assistance and access to justice, in line with Article 2 of the Convention, and the Committee’s General Recommendation No. 33 (2015) on women’s access to justice;

(d)     Conduct a census to ascertain the number of stateless persons in its territory and take the necessary measures, provide them with civil registration documents and consider ratifying the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and the 1967 Additional Protocol, the 1954 Convention relating to the Status of Stateless Persons and the 1961 Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness;

(e)      Enlist and mobilize the support of the international community to share the economic burden and to provide for the needs of the refugee population, including resettlement and humanitarian admission opportunities and continue cooperating with UNHCR;

(f)      Adopt a national action plan to implement United Nations Security Council resolution 1325 (2000) on women, peace and security, and ensure women’s participation at all stages of peace processes, in line with the Committee’s General Recommendation No. 30 (2013) on women in conflict prevention, conflict and post-conflict situations, and seek the support of the international community for the implementation of its obligations.


  1. The Committee is fully aware of the efforts undertaken by the State party to adopt a legal and institutional framework protecting and promoting women’s rights. The Committee urges the State party to consider the recommendations contained in the present concluding observations as requiring a high priority for national mobilization and international support. The Committee urges the State party to promptly implement the present concluding observations by setting up a coordination mechanism with all relevant State institutions at all levels, the parliament and the judiciary, and the civil society, as well as with its international partners.


  1. The Committee stresses the crucial role of the legislative power in ensuring the full implementation of the Convention (see the statement by the Committee on its relationship with parliamentarians, adopted at the forty-fifth session, in 2010). It invites the Parliament, to take all measures necessary to unblock the current institutional crisis and, in line with its mandate, to take the steps necessary for the implementation of the present concluding observations.

Withdrawal of reservations

  1. Notwithstanding the detailed explanations given by the delegation, the Committee remains concerned about the State party’s reluctance to withdraw its reservation to:

(a)     Article 9 (2), with a view to granting women equal rights with men with respect to the nationality of their children.. The Committee also notes with concern that the Council of Ministers repeatedly endorsed the discriminatory provision in Decree No. 15 of 1925 on Lebanese Nationality establishing that nationality is exclusively based on patrilineal descent;

(b)     Article 16 (1) (c), (d), (f) and (g) regarding equality in marriage and family relations.

  1. The Committee calls upon the State party to:

(a)     Withdraw its reservation made upon accession to the Convention regarding article 9 (2) and repeal Decree No. 15 of 1925 on Lebanese Nationality and adopt legislation ensuring women equal rights with men to confer their nationality to their foreign spouse and children;

(b)     Withdraw its reservation made upon accession to the Convention regarding article article 16 (1) (c), (d), (f) and (g).

       (c)           Initiate a dialogue with the leaders of religious sects communities and religious scholars, taking in consideration best practices in the region, with a view to overcome the resistance to the withdrawal of its reservations to the Convention.

Constitutional framework

  1. The Committee remains concerned that the Lebanese Constitution is still not in full conformity with the Convention and does not explicitly prohibit discrimination on the basis of sex. It is also concerned about the limited scope and applicability of the procedure for challenging laws on the basis that they are incompatible with the State party’s Constitution and its international legal obligations.
  2. The Committee reiterates its previous recommendations to include in the Constitution a provision defining and prohibiting discrimination on the basis of sex, in line with article 2 (a) of the Convention (CEDAW/C/LBN/CO/3, paras. 10 and 11 and A/60/38, para. 95 adopted in 2005) and to amend articles 9 and 10 of the Constitution to ensure gender equality in the context of religious freedom and sectarian diversity.

Legislative framework

  1. The Committee welcomes the initial review legislation containing discriminatory provisions against women by the State party but is concerned about the delays in adopting the required amendments. The Committee welcomes the amendment of the Criminal Code and the repeal of its Article 562. However, it is concerned about the remaining discriminatory criminal law provisions as well as personal status laws that discriminate against women within sects and between women across different sects. The Committee is also concerned about discriminatory provisions in labour, social security and municipal elections laws.
  2. The Committee recommends that the State party expedite a comprehensive legislative review to ensure compatibility with the provisions of the Convention, and, upon resolution of the institutional crisis and the re-functioning of the government, urges it to amend or repeal all articles of the Criminal Code, personal status laws as well as labour, social security and municipal election laws that discriminate against women.

Access to Justice

  1. The Committee is concerned about the obstacles women face when accessing the justice system, in particular the lack of adequate legal aid services and the lack of knowledge and sensitivity of justice officials regarding women’s rights.
  2. The Committee in line with its general recommendation No. 33, on women’s access to justice, recommends that the State party:

(a)     Institutionalize systems of legal aid and public defence that are accessible, sustainable and responsive to the needs of women and ensure that such services are provided in a timely, continuous and effective manner at all stages of judicial or quasi-judicial proceedings, including alternative dispute resolution mechanisms;.

(b)     Take immediate steps, including capacity-building and training programmes for justice system personnel on the Convention and women’s rights , to ensure that religious courts harmonize their norms, procedures and practices with the human rights standards enshrined in the Convention and other international human rights instruments.

National machinery for the advancement of women

  1. The Committee regrets the institutional weakness, the limited status, the insufficient decision-making authority, human, technical and financial resources of the national machinery for the advancement of women and the obstacles faced concerning coordination and gender mainstreaming throughout all government bodies. The Committee is concerned about the low level of coordination between the gender focal points within the line Ministries with the Department of Women’s Affairs of the Ministry of Social Affairs. The Committee is also concerned about the limited and inadequate information provided on the implementation of the National Strategy for Women in Lebanon.
  2. The Committee reiterates its previous recommendation (CEDAW/C/LBN/CO/3, para. 21) that the State party:

(a)     Give urgent priority to strengthen the institutional capacity of the national machinery for the advancement of women, and provide it with the mandate, decision-making power and human, technical and financial resources that are necessary to work effectively for the promotion of equality of women and men and the enjoyment of their human rights;

(b)     Institutionalize and strengthen the system of gender focal points in line Ministries and other public institutions in order to achieve an effective gender mainstreaming strategy throughout its policies and programmes;

(c)      Ensure coordination between the national machinery and its cooperation with civil society and women’s non-governmental organizations with a view to promote a participatory planning for the advancement of women.

(d)     Accelerate the implementation of the National Strategy for Women in Lebanon by adopting a plan of action that clearly defines the competencies of national and local authorities regarding the National Strategy, and supported by a comprehensive data collection system to monitor its implementation.


  1. The Committee is concerned about the discriminatory patriarchal stereotypes about the roles and responsibilities of women and men in society and in the family and the role of the media in overemphasizing the traditional role of women as mothers and wives or commodities thus undermining women’s social status and their educational and professional careers. The Committee notes with concern that the advertising sector persistently convey stereotyped and sometimes degrading images of women.
  2. The Committee recommends that the State party take all measures necessary to raise awareness of the media and the advertising sector to eliminate discriminatory gender stereotypes, to ensure that women are not portrayed only as wives and mothers or commodities and to promote positive images of women as active participants in political, economic and social life.

Violence against women

  1. The Committee welcomes the adoption of Law No. 293 of 7 May 2014 on the protection of women and other family members from domestic violence. However, the Committee notes with concern the absence in the law of an explicit reference to gender-based violence against women and of provisions specifically criminalizing marital rape, crimes committed in the name of so-called honour, and other harmful practices. It is also concerned that the law continues to maintain discriminatory provisions with regard to the criminalization of adultery and that it takes no precedence over customary and personal status laws. The Committee further regrets the lack of disaggregated data on the number of reports, investigations, prosecutions and convictions in cases of violence against women, including sexual harassment, domestic violence, assault and rape, including by security forces.
  2. The Committee urges the State party to:

(a)     Amend Law No. 293 on domestic violence, in line with the Committee’s general recommendation No. 19 (1992) on violence against women, to specifically criminalize gender-based violence against women, marital rape, crimes committed in the name of so-called honour, and other harmful practices;

(b)     Remove discriminatory provisions between women and men regarding adultery and ensure that Law No. 293 on the protection of women and other family members from domestic violence takes precedence over customary and personal status laws;

(c)      Collect data, disaggregated by sex, age, nationality and relationship between the victim and the perpetrator, on the number of reported cases of violence against women, of prosecutions, convictions and sentences imposed on perpetrators

(d)     Strengthen the legal, medical and psychological support to victims of violence against women;

(e)      Ensure that all allegations of sexual harassment are recorded and that all allegations of assault and rape, are duly investigated, prosecuted and sanctioned and that victims have access to appropriate redress, including compensation. Ensure that all allegations of assault and rape by members of the security forces are investigated by an independent judicial authority.

Trafficking and exploitation of prostitution

  1. The Committee welcomes the adoption of the Anti-trafficking Law No. 164 of 2011 but notes with concern that the artist visa scheme of 1962 facilitates sexual exploitation of women migrant workers in the entertainment sector, and that the law no. 164 is not effectively being enforced, that it criminalizes victims and is without prejudice to the artist visa scheme. It is also concerned about the absence of an early identification and referral system for victims of trafficking who are frequently arrested, detained and deported without adequate protection and assistance for victims and weak coordination between government security, justice and social services as well as lack of cooperation with civil society.
  2. The Committee recommends that the State party:

(a)     Review and revise the artist visa scheme to ensure it is not misused for the sexual exploitation of women and take appropriate steps to decrease the demand side of prostitution;

(b)     Amend article 523 of the Criminal Code as necessary to ensure that victims of trafficking are not subjected to prosecution;

(c)      Provide mandatory gender-sensitive capacity-building for judges, prosecutors, border police, immigration authorities and other law enforcement officials to ensure the strict enforcement of the Anti-Trafficking Law by promptly prosecuting all cases of trafficking in women and girls and adequately punishing traffickers;

(d)     Ensure early identification and referral to protection of trafficking victims; and strengthen assistance to victims of trafficking, including by granting temporary residence permits to victims of trafficking irrespective of their ability or willingness to cooperate with the prosecution authorities and by providing them access to alternative income opportunities, respectively;

(e)      Provide victims of trafficking with adequate access to health care and counselling and strengthen those services by providing targeted training to social workers;

(f)      Ensure inter-agency coordination between government security, justice and social services to combat trafficking and strengthen cooperation with civil society.


Participation in political and public life

The Committee is concerned about the gross underrepresentation of women in public and political life; the lack of capacity-building for political parties and labour unions representatives on women’s rights and regrets that the draft law providing for a 30 per cent minimum quota for women’s representation on candidates lists of political parties for parliamentary elections was not adopted. It is concerned about the strong political resistance to the adoption of temporary special measures to effectively promote women’s equal participation in public and political life.

  1. The Committee recommends that the State party:

       (a)           Take all appropriate measures to increase the number of women in elected and appointed office at all levels, so as to comply with article 7 of the Convention;

(b)     Take concrete measures, including temporary special measures in accordance with article 4 (1) of the Convention, the Committee’s general recommendation no. 23 on women in political and public life and general recommendation no. 25 on temporary special measures, and to establish concrete goals and timetables in order to accelerate the increase in the representation of women in all spheres of public and political life;

(c)      Implement awareness-raising campaigns to highlight the importance to society as a whole of women’s full and equal participation in leadership positions in all sectors and at all levels and explain the purpose of introducing temporary special measures such as quotas as a necessary strategy for accelerating realization of women’s de facto equality..


  1. The Committee notes the recommendation in the study by the National Committee for the Follow-up of Women’s Issues and the Centre for Educational Research and Development to eliminate discriminatory gender stereotypes in school books. However, the Committee is concerned that the State party’s has not taken effective steps to remove such stereotypes from school curricula and textbooks. It is also concerned about the lack of training for teachers on women’s rights and gender equality and limited career guidance encouraging women and girls to choose non-traditional career paths, in particular in the fields of science and technology.
  2. The Committee recommends that the State party intensify its efforts in reviewing school curricula and textbooks to eliminate any stereotyped and patriarchal roles of women. It reiterates its previous recommendation (CEDAW/C/LBN/CO/3, para. 25) that the State party enhance training for teachers on gender, women’s rights and equality. The Committee further recommends that the State party give priority to eliminating traditional stereotypes and structural barriers that may deter girls from enrolling in traditionally male-dominated fields of study, such as science and technology, and step up efforts to provide girls with career counselling on non-traditional career paths including non-stereotypical vocational training.


  1. The Committee welcomes the adoption of Laws No. 266 and No. 267 of 15 April 2014 extending maternity leave in the public and private sectors to 10 weeks with full pay. However, the Committee is concerned about the lack of measures to promote the concept of shared family responsibilities and to combat the difficulties women face in combining work and family responsibilities. The Committee is also concerned about women’s limited access to the formal labour market and about the absence of legislation criminalizing sexual harassment in the work place. The Committee is further concerned about the occupational segregation and the high percentage of women in low paid jobs as service sector workers and salespersons, administrative staff and mid-level professions as well as gender pay gaps.
  2. The Committee calls on the State party to:

(a)     Promote equal sharing of family and domestic responsibilities between women and men, including by introducing compulsory paternity or shared parental leave following childbirth;

(b)     Take measures, including temporary special measures in line with article 4 (1) of the Convention and General Recommendation No. 5 (1988) on temporary special measures, such as incentives for employers to recruit women, introduce flexible working arrangements and strengthen professional training for women, with a view to enhancing women’s access to the formal labour market;

(c)      Adopt legislation criminalizing sexual harassment in the work place;

(d)     Take concrete measures to address horizontal and vertical segregation including by promoting the equal participation of women in highly skilled jobs and senior management positions; providing counselling and placement, that stimulate their on-the-job career development and upward mobility in the labour market; stimulating the diversification of occupational choices by both women and men; encouraging women to take up non-traditional jobs, especially in science and technology, and men to seek employment in the social sector and providing women with access to effective job training, retraining, counselling and placement services that are not limited to traditional employment areas;

(e)      Take concrete measures to close the gap between women’s and men’s pay and to implement the principle of equal pay for work of equal value including by establishing a body responsible for conducting job evaluation schemes with gender-neutral criteria.

Women migrant workers in domestic service

  1. The Committee welcomes the various measures adopted by the State party to protect the rights of women migrant domestic workers, including by issuing unified contracts, requiring employers to sign up to an insurance policy, regulating employment agencies, adopting a law criminalizing human trafficking, and integrating women migrant domestic workers in the Social Pact and the National Strategy for Social Development. However, the Committee notes with concern that these measures have proved insufficient to ensure respect for the human rights of women migrant domestic workers. The Committee is equally concerned about the rejection by the Ministry of Labour of the application of the National Federation of Labour Union to establish a Domestic Workers’ Union and the .absence of an enforcement mechanism for work contracts of women migrant domestic workers; limited access by women migrant domestic workers to health care and social protection; and the non-ratification of ILO convention No. 189. The Committee is concerned about the high incidence of abuse against women migrant workers in domestic service and the persistence of practices such as the confiscation of passports by employers, the maintenance of the “Kafala system” which puts workers at risk of exploitation and make it difficult for them to leave abusive employers; obstacles affecting domestic workers’ access to justice, including fear of expulsion, insecurity of residence during procedures. The Committee is deeply concerned about the disturbing reports of documented deaths of migrant domestic workers from unnatural causes, including suicide and falls from tall buildings and the failure of the State party to investigate into those deaths.
  2. The Committee, in line with its General Recommendation No. 26 (2008), on Women Migrant Workers, recommends that the State party:

(a)     Raise awareness among women migrant domestic workers of their human rights under the Convention, and monitor the work of employment agencies, including by establishing an enforcement mechanism to ensure that the same contracts are used in the State party and in countries of origin;

(b)     Expedite the adoption of the draft law regulating domestic employment with adequate sanctions for employers engaging in abusive practices and ratify ILO Convention No. 189 (2011) on decent work for domestic workers;

(c)      Abolish the “Kafala system” and ensure the effective access to justice, of women migrant domestic workers including by guaranteeing their safety and residence during procedures;

(d)     Promptly investigate, prosecute and sanction all reports of deaths of women migrant domestic workers from unnatural causes;

(e)      Take the measures necessary to protect the rights of women migrant domestic workers including by approving the establishment of a Domestic Workers’ Union.

Women Palestine refugees

  1. The Committee is concerned about restrictions on the right to work of Palestine refugee women.
  2. The Committee recommends that the State party review and amend its labour laws to ensure Palestine refugee women’s right to work, namely by providing them with access to the labour market in the State party.


  1. The Committee welcomes the adoption of the “Comprehensive Primary Health Care Package and Services” by the Ministry of Public Health in 2013, the establishment of primary health care centres throughout the State party and the progress achieved in reducing maternal mortality. The Committee is, however, concerned about the limited access of women and adolescent girls to sexual and reproductive health services in rural and remote areas in the State party. It is also concerned about insufficient monitoring of private health care providers, which offer most of the specialized health services for women. The Committee further notes with concern the high number of unsafe abortions due to the strict criminalization of abortion and the delay in introducing age-appropriate education on sexual and reproductive health and rights at the primary, intermediate and secondary levels of education.
  2. The Committee recommends that the State party provide comprehensive health services, in particular sexual and reproductive health services, in each region in relation to area and population size; take measures to adequately monitor the performance of private health care providers, and introduce age-appropriate education on sexual and reproductive health in the curricula at the primary, intermediate and secondary levels of education. The Committee also recommends that the State party legalize abortion at least in cases of threats to the life or health of the mother, rape, incest, and severe fetal impairment and that it increase women’s access to safe abortion and post-abortion care services.

Rural women

  1. The Committee welcomes the creation in 2008 of the National Observatory for Women in Agriculture and Rural Areas by the Ministry of Agriculture. The Committee notes with concern the lack of updated disaggregated data on women’s participation in the agricultural sector. It remains concerned about the exclusion of women agricultural seasonal workers from the protection of the Labour Code and the limited initiatives for women’s access to rural entrepreneurship through technical assistance, micro credit facilities and bank accounts.
  2. The Committee reiterates its previous recommendation that the State party collect updated disaggregated data on women working in the agricultural sector, adopt legislation for the protection of women agricultural seasonal workers and strengthen the support for the entrepreneurial initiatives of women in the rural areas.

Marriage and family relations

  1. The Committee recommends that the State party:

(a)     Adopt an optional civil personal status law based on the principles of equality and non-discrimination and the right to choose one’s religious affiliation in order to protect women and alleviate their legal, economic and social marginalization;

(b)     Require religious sects to codify their laws and submit them to Parliament for review of their conformity with the Constitution and the provisions of the Convention; that it establish an appeals mechanism to oversee religious court proceedings and ensure that judgements of religious courts do not discriminate against women;

(c)      Set the legal minimum age for marriage at 18 years for girls and boys, in line with international standards, and takes the measures necessary to effectively prevent child marriage among rural girls.



in brief, in Lebanon, the long road ahead for equality is a process that needs many institutions to work hard , public administrations to make efforts, political will, working on behaviors, customs, and so much more!

the task is enormous? yes! but sooo many magnificient activists worked restlessly to have some positiveness in all this. We need to continue the struggle, and fight for #equal rights!!

Rita Chemaly

if you wish to download the full text of the concluding observations here is the word text:

CEDAW_Concluding observations on Lebanon 2015 Rita Chemaly

The source for the document is : http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/SessionDetails1.aspx?SessionID=970&Lang=en

‪#‎16DaysofActivism‬ ‪#‎GBVTeachin‬ ‪#‎womenlead‬ ‪#‎orangetheworld‬  ‪#‎EndGBV‬ ‪#‎16days‬ #16dayscampaign



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Depuis hier, certains representants et representantes de mon pays, le Liban, sont a Geneve. Certains en delegation officielle, d’autres representantes d’ONG . Le but discuter du rapport sur les droits de  l’homme UPR, et discuter de la situation de la discrimination à l’égard des femmes devant le comite de suivi de la CEDAW.

Il faut dire que le rapport presente par le Liban pour la Cedaw est exhaustif. pour tous ceux et celles qui ne l’ont pas lu voila le lien en Francais. http://www.un.org/french/documents/view_doc.asp?symbol=CEDAW/C/LBN/4-5

Rita Chemaly

Ci dessous l’article pris de l’OHCHR :

Comité pour l’élimination de la discrimination à l’égard des femmes : audition d’ONG sur le Liban, les Émirats arabes unis et le Malawi 2 novembre 2015 Le Comité pour l’élimination de la discrimination à l’égard des femmes a entendu, cet après-midi, des représentants d’organisations non gouvernementales et d’une institution nationale des droits de l’homme au sujet de la mise en œuvre de la Convention sur l’élimination de toutes les formes de discrimination à l’égard des femmes dans femmes dans trois des quatre pays dont les rapports seront examinés cette semaine, à savoir le Liban, les Émirats arabes unis et le Malawi. Le Comité examinera, le 4 novembre, le rapport de l’Ouzbékistan, mais aucun représentant de la société civile n’est intervenu sur la situation dans ce pays.S’agissant du Liban, dont le rapport sera examiné demain, l’attention a notamment été attirée sur les problèmes de violence familiale contre les femmes, de traite de femmes et sur la situation des travailleuses domestiques migrantes. Les organisations ont dénoncé la loi sur le statut personnel: le mariage, le divorce, la garde des enfants et l’héritage sont toujours soumis aux différentes lois des 18 confessions et sectes du pays, constituant autant de discriminations flagrantes fondées sur le sexe.En ce qui concerne les Émirats arabes unis, dont le rapport sera examiné jeudi prochain, 5 novembre, ont notamment été dénoncées les discriminations et souffrances quotidiennes endurées par les femmes engagées en faveur des droits de l’homme et des femmes proches de défenseurs des droits de l’homme. Il a en outre été recommandé que soit réformé le système de la kafala afin de permettre aux travailleuses domestiques de changer d’emploi sans l’autorisation de leur employeur et sans perdre leur statut d’immigrant. Pour ce qui est du Malawi, dont le rapport sera examiné vendredi prochain, 6 novembre, ont notamment été évoqués les problèmes d’accès des femmes à la justice et de représentation des femmes dans la vie politique et publique. Il a en outre été déploré que le domicile des femmes mariées dépende toujours du mari. Les intervenants ont également déploré le peu d’engagement du Gouvernement à aborder concrètement la question de la violence fondée sur le sexe dans les écoles, ainsi que le manque d’accès à la terre pour les femmes rurales.Des échanges entre les membres du Comité et les représentants de la société civile ont suivi ces présentations. Demain matin, à 10 heures, le Comité entamera l’examen du rapport du Liban (CEDAW/C/LBN/4-5) Audition des organisations non gouvernementales S’agissant du Liban Le Comité non gouvernemental du suivi des questions féminines a attiré l’attention sur la loi relative au statut personnel, déplorant le maintien de la réserve que le Liban a émise à l’égard de l’article 16 de la Convention, alors que le mariage, le divorce, la garde des enfants et l’héritage sont toujours soumis dans ce pays aux lois des 18 différentes confessions et sectes qui y existent, constituant autant de discriminations flagrantes fondées sur le sexe. L’ONG a en outre souligné que la loi relative à la nationalité restait discriminatoire à l’égard des femmes auxquelles elle ne permet pas de transmettre la nationalité libanaise à leurs enfants et époux. L’ONG a également dénoncé la faible participation des femmes dans la vie politique libanaise. KAFA (assez) Violence et Exploitation a attiré l’attention sur les problèmes de violence familiale contre les femmes et de traite de femmes. L’ONG a notamment déploré que la loi 293 sur la violence familiale adoptée en 2014 pâtit d’un manque de perspective sexospécifique puisqu’elle couvre tous les membres de la famille, y compris les hommes. Au lieu d’incriminer le viol marital, en réponse aux pressions exercées par les groupes religieux, cette loi se contente d’incriminer le recours à la violence ou à la menace pour obtenir de prétendus «droits maritaux». Quant à la traite de femmes, l’ONG a déploré que les trafiquants ne soient pas poursuivis en justice pour rendre des comptes.Avenir Liban a insisté sur la nécessité pour le Liban de créer un ministère chargé des affaires féminines, d’abroger les lois discriminatoires – notamment pour ce qui est de l’article 522 du code pénal qui permet à un violeur d’être acquitté pour son acte s’il épouse sa victime – et de promouvoir l’accès des femmes libanaises à la justice.Human Rights Watch a fait observer que le Liban comptait quelque 250 000 migrants travailleurs domestiques, presque tous des femmes. Dans le secteur du travail domestique, les plaintes sont nombreuses pour non-paiement de salaires, horaires de travail excessifs, privation de nourriture et autres violences psychologiques, physiques et sexuelles. En vertu du système de la kafala, a ajouté l’ONG, les travailleurs migrants domestiques ne peuvent quitter leur employeur ou en changer sans l’autorisation de leur employeur initial.Une experte du Comité a demandé des renseignements sur la mise en œuvre au Liban de la résolution 1325 du Conseil de sécurité (femmes, paix et sécurité) au regard du nombre de réfugiés se trouvant actuellement sur le territoire libanais. Quel espoir les ONG fondent-elles sur l’acceptation d’un mariage civil, a en outre demandé l’experte? Une autre experte a souhaité en savoir davantage au sujet de l’accès des femmes à la justice. Les femmes ont-elles accès à la propriété foncière au Liban, a-t-il en outre été demandé ?Une organisation non gouvernementale a souligné que jusqu’à présent, aucune mesure n’avait été prise afin de tenir compte de la résolution 1325 du Conseil de sécurité. Une autre ONG a par ailleurs indiqué qu’aucune loi ou règle n’empêchait les femmes d’avoir accès à la propriété foncière, sauf pour les femmes musulmanes qui ne peuvent pas hériter à parts égales avec les hommes et sauf le machisme qui peut amener les femmes à refuser d’hériter au profit de leurs frères.S’agissant des Émirats arabes unisInternational Centre for Justice and Human Rights a attiré l’attention sur les souffrances endurées par les femmes engagées en faveur des droits de l’homme et des femmes proches de défenseurs des droits de l’homme, qui, aux Émirats arabes unis, sont confrontées au quotidien à la discrimination. Aussi, le Comité devrait-il demander au pays de cesser l’oppression exercée contre ces femmes.Human Rights Watch a déclaré que les Émirats arabes unis n’avaient pas protégé de manière adéquate les travailleuses domestiques migrantes contre les abus de leurs employeurs et des agents qui les recrutent. Ces femmes seraient au moins 146 000 aux Émirats arabes unis, a précisé l’ONG. Le Comité devrait notamment demander au pays de réformer le système de la kafala afin de permettre aux travailleuses domestiques de changer d’emploi sans l’autorisation de leur employeur et sans perdre leur statut d’immigré. Musawah – représenté par International Women’s Rights Action Watch Asia Pacific (IWRAW-AP) a déploré que les Émirats arabes unis justifient les réserves qu’ils maintiennent à l’égard des articles 2, 15 et 16 de la Convention en affirmant que leur contenu violait les préceptes de la charia islamique que le pays considérait comme «immuables». Or, il existe dans la théorie juridique musulmane des outils et concepts juridiques qui peuvent être utilisés pour réformer les lois musulmanes discriminatoires, a souligné l’ONG, précisant notamment que l’essentiel de ce que les Émirats arabes unis considèrent aujourd’hui comme étant la «loi islamique» est en fait constitué par la jurisprudence (fiqh), c’est-à-dire la compréhension humaine de ce qu’est la charia.S’agissant du MalawiWomen’s Legal Resources Centre a fait observer que 28 ans après la ratification de la Convention, les femmes du Malawi ne pouvaient toujours pas invoquer cet instrument devant les tribunaux parce que le Malawi, qui est un État dualiste, n’avait toujours pas transposé les dispositions de la Convention en droit interne. L’ONG a par ailleurs attiré l’attention sur les problèmes qui se posent au Malawi en termes, notamment, d’accès des femmes à la justice et de représentation des femmes dans la vie politique et publique. L’ONG a également déploré que le domicile des femmes mariées dépende toujours du mari. L’organisation a également déploré le peu d’engagement du Gouvernement à aborder concrètement la question de la violence fondée sur le sexe dans les écoles.NGO Gender Coordination Network a dénoncé la faible représentation des femmes dans la vie politique et publique du Malawi. L’ONG a par ailleurs déploré que selon la loi traditionnelle, le domicile de la femme dépende de l’homme, ce qui ne manque pas d’avoir des répercussions posant problème en matière d’héritage. Enfin, en cas de viol dans une institution scolaire, les violeurs sont simplement transférés vers d’autres écoles, a déploré l’ONG.Catholic Commission for Justice and Peace a notamment fait observer que les femmes rurales au Malawi n’avaient pas accès à la terre. Un programme de sécurité sociale n’a été mis en place par le Gouvernement que dans 16 districts sur 28 concernés, et encore ce programme n’est-il financé que grâce à l’aide extérieure, ce qui n’est pas viable. La Commission des droits de l’homme du Malawi a reconnu que le Malawi avait fait des efforts pour renforcer le cadre juridique et politique en faveur des droits des femmes. Elle a toutefois déploré que le pays n’ait toujours pas ratifié le Protocole facultatif se rapportant à la Convention; que la Constitution et la loi sur l’égalité entre les sexes n’aient pas adopté la définition de la discrimination fournie dans la Convention; et que le pays n’ait toujours pas révisé la loi sur la nationalité en vue d’en abroger les dispositions discriminatoires, en particulier celle qui prévoit la perte de nationalité pour les femmes qui se marient avec un étranger, ce qui n’est pas le cas pour les hommes qui se marient avec une étrangère. La disponibilité et l’accès à des services de soins de santé acceptables reste un défi majeur pour les femmes du Malawi, a ajouté la Commission des droits de l’homme.Une experte du Comité a souhaité savoir où en était le projet de loi sur la santé génésique qui devait être adopté dans le cadre de la réforme de la loi de 1948 sur la santé publique. L’avortement est-il légal au Malawi et quelles sont les dispositions à cet égard?Une organisation non gouvernementale a déclaré que la plupart des femmes avaient accès au système de justice informelle. Mais le Malawi examine actuellement la loi afin d’améliorer la situation à cet égard. __________ – See more at: http://www.ohchr.org/fr/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=16699&LangID=F#sthash.DlCaHAs3.9o9x1XZF.dpuf



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Jeudi 24 septembre 2015

17h/19hSciences Po, 56 rue des Saints Pères, 75007 ParisSalle Goguel (5ème étage)

Inscription: valerie.richard@sciencespo.fr

Présentation:Comment les quotas sont-ils devenus une évidence républicaine ? Pourquoi l’équivalence numérique des sexes s’est-elle imposée comme le miroir de l’égalité dans les lieux de pouvoir ?Ce livre retrace l’histoire de l’idée de parité, en éclairant ses continuités et ruptures avec le féminisme des années 1970, les mobilisations qu’elle a suscitées, et les résistances tenaces auxquelles elle s’est heurtée avant de faire norme et loi.Au fil de cette histoire, ce sont les prémisses des perceptions contemporaines de l’égalité et de la différence des sexes qui se donnent à voir. Au-delà, ce livre offre un nouveau regard sur la dynamique des contestations collectives et du changement social. En dégageant les contours d’un « espace de la cause des femmes », il met à l’épreuve les oppositions routinières entre mobilisations élitistes et populaires, mouvements sociaux et institutions, progressisme et conservatisme.

Biographie:Laure BERENI est sociologue, chercheuse au CNRS, et membre du Centre Maurice Halbwachs à Paris.bereni-bataille-parite-z

plus de details sur http://www.programme-presage.com/details/events/conference-presage-la-bataille-de-la-parite.html

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The Political Science Institute of Saint Joseph University which I’m an alumni of, Has prepared a survey about Child marriage in Lebanon.

The field survey answers have been compared to UNHCR sources and the Ministry of Interior sources.

The final research paper show high number of child marriage and the need to work on a sustainable plan of Education for children and their parents.

The aim of the research paper is:

1- Measure the numbers of Child marriages in Lebanon and for the Syrian refugees  communities living in Lebanon.

2- Estimate the progress of child marriage throughout the years.

3- Identify whether the child marriage increased for the Syrian refugee communities after the Syrian Crisis.

4- Identification of the main factors that increase child marriage.

below is a table showing the number of child marriage by Confessions / Sects in Lebanon :

Numbers of Child Marriage by Sects source ISP Research 2015

Numbers of Child Marriage by Sects source ISP Research 2015

Moreover the reasons for child marriage have been consolidated by the Field Survey prepared by ISP and done by its students with Lebanese and Syrian refugees

below is an illustration taken from the report that explains what are the most important factors that facilitate child marriages:

factors inducing child marraige in Lebanon Rita Chemaly

source ISP survey page 31

To read the full research and download the survey results kindly click on this link : Link to survey/research French

it is worth noting that 2 of my students had participated in the Field Survey  Nour Makhlouf and Ines Zaky, their are brilliant!

To see the video created that covers how the survey was prepared and how the questionnaires were filled in ALL Lebanese regions:

https://www.youtube.com/embed/2btqWPo29tU” target=”_blank”>

For those who are interested in joining forces and mobilise against child marriage in Lebanon,

here are some readings and sources about the subject :

1- My previous post of February 1 2014 related to Child Marriage: Join the Movement to end Child Marriage in Lebanon (French)

2-My previous post of January 25 2014 related to child bride : Early marriages in Lebanon who helps the bride child ? (English)

3- The article of Layal Timani in the Legal Agenda of 1 February 2014 (Arabic)

زواج القاصرات بين الفتاوى الشرعية والقانون!  “سندريلا” تقع فريسة احلامها

4- The article of Nermine Sibai in the Legal Agenda (Arabic)

قضاة الأحداث في لبنان يرسمون حدود الحماية: صلاحيات المحاكم الشرعية والرواسب الاجتماعية الرجعية

5- The article of Ana Maria Luca in NOW Lebanon of 30102013 : Lebanon’s child brides  (English)

6- The short video created by NCLW, IWSAW and LAU to shed lights on the terrific consequences of child Marriage in Lebanon: Campaign against child bride : Early marriages In Lebanon    (Arabic with english subtitles)

7- Draft Law aiming at protecting Children from early marriages presented to the Parliament in Lebanon , September 30 2014, Chemaly Rita

8- Penal Code in Lebanon too lose in protecting minors from Marriage and Exploitation , June 18 2014 , Chemaly Rita

9- Join the Movement to end Child Marriage in Lebanon, February 1 2014, Chemaly Rita

Chemaly Rita

https://www.youtube.com/embed/2btqWPo29tU” target=”_blank”>

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16 Days of Activism Against Gender-Based Violence Campaign has announced its new theme for 2015.

16dayscampaign theme lebanon

The Campaign that will be held from November 25 to December 10 will focus on:

“From Peace in the Home to Peace in the World: Make Education Safe for All!”

Below is a clearer view of what is thought of under the theme of 2015:

Under this global theme, the 16 Days Campaign is asking you to join in advancing the right to education and challenging violence, discrimination, and inequity in education at the intersection of gender, race or ethnicity, religion, real or perceived sexual orientation, socio-economic status, and other social identifiers. You can start thinking about what spaces and access to education look like in your community, country, or region. In planning your participation, consider the ways in which militarism affects education, whether in peacetime, during conflict, in refugee and IDP camps, in indigenous territories, in schools and other education settings, or even on the streets. Consider how violence and increased militarism has affected the education of young people in countries that have recently experienced different types of armed conflict; how extremism through State and non-State policies and practices have affected the right to education, especially for girls; and how government expenditures on arms and other priorities of militarization set the tone in funding for safe and accessible education for all .”

In Lebanon Education is a huge domain in which clear action plans need to be implemented, the Problem is access and quality of education for several people living in Lebanon.

I am thinking of all those IDPs camp in which I was greeted by yound children that didn’t go to school, and stayed in the camps all day long.

below is the link the website:


here is what you Can do to join this Global Movement:


CWGL is in the process of developing resources and campaign materials, which will provide useful background information on the theme and suggestions for planning campaign activities.

CWGL will be posting these resources on the 16 Days Campaign website over the months leading up to the campaign. You can also write to the 16 Days Campaign (16days@cwgl.rutgers.edu) to request hard copies of these materials. Participants can visit our website (http://16days.cwgl.rutgers.edu) to download the Take Action Kit materials or to request a hard copy when available.

Join the 16 Days Campaign!

The 16 Days Campaign is open to participants engaging in action on these issues in ways that are relevant to their specific context. Participants know best on what and with whom they can engage – whether their governments or communities – to challenge and change in positive terms the structures which perpetuate gender-based violence. Create or join a community, campus, national or international activity! Request campaign materials, join the 16 Days listserv, and use past International Calendars of Activities (available online) to spark ideas for your activities or to find information about groups in your area. Use of the hashtag #16Days on social media is encouraged!

Share your plans!

As November approaches, remember to submit your plans to CWGL for posting to the 2015 International Campaign Calendar to become part of the global 16 Days Campaign movement. The International Campaign Calendar can be found at http://16dayscwgl.rutgers.edu/campaign-calendar.

Check out the website!

If you would like more information about the international 16 Days Campaign, please visit the website http://www.cwgl.rutgers.edu/16days/home.html. Pictures from previous 16 Days Campaigns can be viewed on Flickr at https://www.flickr.com/photos/16dayscampaign.

Sign up for the 16 Days e-mail list!

Join the 16 Days of Activism Against Gender-Based Violence e-mail listserv, which gives activists a space to share work against violence, build partnerships with others worldwide, and develop strategies and themes for the annual 16 Days Campaign. Sign up at https://email.rutgers.edu/mailman/listinfo/16days_discussion.


Since its founding in 1991, the Center for Women’s Global Leadership has been the global coordinator of the 16 Days of Activism Against Gender-Based Violence Campaign. For the past twenty-five years, the 16 Days Campaign has been dedicated to advocacy and coordination of work in support of ending gender-based violence at the local, national, and international levels. The dates, November 25th (International Day for the Elimination of Violence Against Women) and December 10th (Human Rights Day), were chosen to emphasize the links between ending gender-based violence and human rights principles and highlight that gender-based violence is an international human rights violation. The 16 Days Campaign is used as an organizing strategy to call for the elimination of all forms of gender-based violence by individuals, groups, and institutions throughout the world.

Attached is the full PDF form :

Theme Announcement 2015 FINAL_English

Rita Chemaly

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For those interested here is the detailed TOR published on NCLW and UNFPA WEBSITES FOR A COMPENDIUM ON CEDAW IN LEBANON

pdf version: TORs Consultant for CEDAW review material FINAL

Consultant for the compilation and assessment of Material /Resources/ Tools developed on CEDAW in Lebanon


Job Title: Consultant for the compilation and assessment of Material /Resources/ Tools developed on CEDAW in Lebanon

Project: LBN3U705

Duty Station: Beirut, Lebanon

Duration of Employment: 3 months (July 1 to September 30,  2015)


Since 2006, the National Commission for Lebanese Women (NCLW) has been collaborating with the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) towards mainstreaming gender aspects in various development platforms, policies, and strategies.

NCLW and UNFPA have sustained their collaboration in 2015 to implement all activities agreed upon for 2015 namely (a) Strengthen the institutionalization and operationalization of the National Action Plan related to the national women strategy in Lebanon 2011-2021, (b) support advocacy efforts for promoting legislation towards gender mainstreaming and equality including CEDAW, and c) Enhance institutional capacities on gender mainstreaming.

Within the context of the joint 2015 annual workplan between NCLW and UNFPA, an activity will be implemented aiming at compiling, reviewing, and assessing CEDAW related material / resources/tools developed/adapted since 2000.  The objective of this task will aim specifically at assessing the material/resources/tools in terms of objective, content/messages, relevance, effectiveness, accuracy, appropriateness, friendliness, target audience, usefulness, producers, among others. This compilation/assessment will also contribute to identifying gaps either on messages, particular groups, language, etc. The end result would consist of a comprehensive and descriptive reference compendium for providing concerned partners and actors with an overall situation of existing (and non existing) knowledge and resources to promote their efforts on CEDAW in the future.

By doing so, the producers and users of material/resources/tools (i.e. Public Sector, NGOs, UN system, academia, etc) would (1) avoid duplication of producing material /resources/ tools on CEDAW, (2) be provided with an overview of existing CEDAW material/resources /tools by type, objective, messages, target groups, etc, (3) be informed of what gaps exist on CEDAW related knowledge and how to address/fill them, and (4) ensure consistency of key messages in future development and promotion of CEDAW related material/resources/tools.

Within the context of this consultancy, the CEDAW material/resources/tools would include – but not exclusive to – reference manuals, training material, tool kits, policy briefs, information leaflets/ brochures/ pamphlets, TV spots, short documentaries, curricula, etc. The approaches to be assessed include – but not exclusive to –  media campaigns, outreach campaigns, capacity development, formal and non formal education, policy dialogue events, etc.

Based on the above and under the overall guidance of the NCLW Secretary General, in coordination with the NCLW National Director and in close collaboration with the project manager, the consultant will be undertaking his/her tasks as per the description below:


  1. Prepare and submit a methodological plan for the consultancy with key milestones and timeline.
  2. Carry out desk and literature review as follows:

2.1. Review CEDAW related documents globally

2.2. Review CEDAW related documents nationally namely national CEDAW reports and shadow report relevant training/evaluation reports, etc.

  1. Produce necessary tools (questionnaire, checklist, focus group guide) for the compilation process of material/ resources/tools in Lebanon
  2. Collect and compile the material/resources/tools produced and/or adapted in Lebanon through web search, face to face meetings, and focus group discussion(s).  The potential stakeholders to be contacted for compilation will include, but not exclusive to,  NCLW, NGOs, social workers, Unions, universities,  possible government administrations/ministries (Ministry of Education and Higher Education, Ministry of Public Health, Ministry of Interior and Municipalities, etc), UN organizations.  During the face to face and focus group discussion(s) with the producers/users of material/resources/tools, they will be asked to provide – among others – feedback on effectiveness/impact of the material/ resources/ tools.
  3. Review, assess, and analyze the material /resources/tools as follows:

5.1. Produce a comparison matrix by type, language, objective, target group, etc. It is suggested to use the CEDAW sections for developing the matrix

5.2. Review, classify and describe in a systematic manner the material /resources/tools based on the comparison matrix

5.3. Analyze the material /resources/ tools and their content both quantitatively and qualitatively and based on the variables in the matrix. The analysis should assess gaps, needs, effectiveness, among others

5.4. Make practical recommendations based on the analysis to better inform producers and users of material/ resources/ tools on the way forward for increasing and enhancing efficiency and impact for promoting CEDAW principles within their respective interventions and programmes through various means and approaches – including innovative approaches.

  1. The final outcome to be delivered by the consultant at the completion of this task would consist of a “comprehensive compendium reference manual in Arabic” (both soft and hard copies) and composed of 2 parts as follows:

6.1. A descriptive and analytical part including background, objectives, findings, analysis and recommendations

6.2. A systematic compilation of all resources/material/tools by several variables (to be agreed upon with NCLW and UNFPA)

  1. In addition to the compendium reference manual in Arabic, the consultant shall provide a brief executive summary in English (7-10 pages).

NCLW and UNFPA shall assist the consultant on tasks related to the Terms of Reference and as follows:

  • Provide access to various reference material as part of the desk and literature review
  • Review the tools for collection purposes and the comparison matrix
  • Facilitate access to stakeholders
  • Provide input on the draft compendium reference manual
  • Education: Bachelor or Master’s  Degree ( Social sciences, humanities, etc )
  • At least 5 years of increasingly responsible experience in qualitative research and evaluation work.
  • Considerable knowledge and understanding of Gender at levels of policy, advocacy, community mobilization, etc
  • Work experience with governmental and non-governmental entities is essential
  • Familiarity with social media platforms is an asset
  • Competencies:
  • Excellent analytical and writing skills
  • Excellent communication skills
  • Working in teams
  • Conflict and self-management
  • Organizational awareness
  • Innovation and marketing of new approaches
  • Results orientation/Commitment to excellence
  • Language and requirements
  • Fluency and excellent writing skills in Arabic and English
  • French is essential
  • IT knowledgeable (i.e. Microsoft office programs, Internet browsing, etc).
  • Interested candidates who meet the above qualifications should apply on line by providing an updated CV detailing work experience that is relevant to the vacancy requirements as indicated in the TORs
  • Please indicate the following title under subject when submitting applications:  Consultant for the compilation and assessment of Material /Resources/ Tools developed on CEDAW in Lebanon
  • NCLW will only be responsible to respond to those applicants submitting the required documents above and in which there is further interest
  • The CV should be submitted to the following email address: info@nclw.org.lb no later than June 19, 2015.



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You want to know what are the discrimination women are facing in Lebanon till 2014?  you wish to know what improvements were made till 2014?  The Official Cedaw Report of the Republic of Lebanon, that has been prepared by NCLW  (www.nclw.org.lb)  is now available in English and French and Spanish.

Below is a sneak through the table of content of the english version:

“Article 1 Definition of discrimination against women ………………………….. …….. 9

Article 2 The principle of non-discrimination and guarantee of its achievement ……………….. 9

The legislative situation and principle of non-discrimination ……………………… 10

Bills and proposals being studied or monitored .

17 IV. Civil society initiatives and efforts …….”

if you wish to download the versions here they are:

the arabic version is available for download here: https://ritachemaly.wordpress.com/2014/09/26/lebanon-official-cedaw-report-on-women-status-for-2014/

cedaw rapport en francais 2014 officiel Liban

cedaw report official Lebanon 2014 English version

they have been translated by the UN: http://www.ohchr.org/EN/Pages/WelcomePage.aspx 

Rita Chemaly

unhcr translation cedaw lebanon 2014

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A strategy is needed for equality and an effective political participation of women in the Public sphere in Lebanon. this simple info graphic shows who were the women responsible of a ministerial cabinet in Lebanon and for which year since 1942. IN brief just 7 women were since 1942 were appointed as MINISTERS in Lebanon. 2 of them without a portfolio ! 😦

Only 6 Cabinets/ Governments out of 74 Governments in Lebanon have appointed Women!!!!

We need to ACT!!!!

Rita Chemaly

WOMEN in Political Sphere in Lebanon Cabinet Rita Chemaly

This pic is taken from the Women participation in Elections prepared by UNDP in Lebanon http://www.lebanon-elections.org/Modules/Document/UploadFile/6171_12,02,YYWomen-in-Elections-accordion.pdf

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As Parliamentary Commissions in Lebanon are studying the electoral law , we have been invited as Women active groups to give our opinion related to the “temporary, measure” the women  quota.

The first question that comes to mind:  are they considering a women quota?

yes they do, but Under which electoral system, no body know 😦 how Lebanon will be divided in régions, the annexe was not distributed for us to review it.

what is a quota for women, here is an extract from Atlas of Electoral Gender Quotas © International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance 2014.

Direct Link to Full 16-Page Text: http://www.idea.int/publications/atlas-of-electoral-gender-quotas/upload/Atlas-on-Electoral-Gender-Quotas_3.pdf

“Electoral Gender Quotas – A Major Electoral Reform

Gender quotas are numerical targets that stipulate the number or percentage of women that must be included in a candidate list or the number of seats to be allocated to women in a legislature. They aim to reverse discrimination in law and practice and to level the playing field for women and men in politics. Gender quotas, as they mostly regulate political parties’ actions, underscore the notion of political parties as the ‘gatekeepers’ through which citizens pursue opportunities for political leadership (Dahlerup 2006). Therefore quotas play a critical role in providing meaningful and effective opportunities for female party members to access elected public offices. To date, gender quotas have proved to be the single most effective tool for ‘fast-tracking’ women’s representation in elected bodies of government. It is, however, important to note that as an extensive body of research in this field suggests, quotas may have a differential impact in different contexts and in different electoral systems and may take longer than a single electoral cycle to produce the desired impact. Furthermore, electoral gender quotas do not remove all structural, institutional and societal barriers for women in politics, and need to be complemented by other measures designed to level the playing field for women.

There are three key types of gender quotas in politics:

1. Legislated candidate quotas – These quotas regulate the gender composition of the candidate lists and are binding by law for all political parties in the election; they are mandated either through national constitutions or by electoral legislation.

2. Legislated ‘reserved seats’ – These measures regulate by law the gender composition of elected bodies, by reserving a certain number or percentage of seats for women members, implemented through special electoral procedures; they are mandated either through national constitutions or by electoral legislation.

3. Party quotas (also called voluntary party quotas) – These quotas are adopted by individual parties for their own candidate lists, and are usually enshrined in party statutes and rules.

All key types of gender quotas are increasingly used around the world to promote women’s political participation and representation. To date, some 1185 countries and territories— more than half of all—use some type of gender quota for an elected office. Based on the information presented in this Atlas, 60 countries and territories/special areas around the world use legislated candidate quotas (which may be used in conjunction with reserved seats or voluntary party quotas), 36 countries and territories/special areas use the system of reserved seats (few of which also use legislated candidate quotas as well) and in 37 countries and territories at least one political party represented in parliament uses a voluntary party quota (countries with both, legislated candidate quotas for national legislatures and voluntary party quotas are excluded from this number). Please see Annex A for a full list of countries in these three categories. The lists presented there include countries with legislated candidate quotas, reserved seats and voluntary party quotas for the composition of lower or upper houses or both, and/or sub-national elected bodies.”

Rita Chemaly

For a list of all related articles in different languages:

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I am chocked, I just watch the episode of 7ki Jelis on You tube again, and I’m still chocked.

a woman that is a Judge has beaten and acted violently on 2 other people : one man and another woman.

more chocking that this Judge in Lebanon has terrorised other neighbors and didn’t let them approach to help the woman she has beaten so violently!

in my opinion this Judge must be Judged for exercing extra powers, as well as exercing Violence against other people whether they are women, men, elderly, foreign refugees!!

She needs to Be CRIMINALISED by her own institution: The Judiciary system in Lebanon, as she is Very Badly Representing it!! she needs to be also “kicked off” by other orders or networks she is member off.


OMG!!! we are working on empowering women, and combating Gender Based Violence, but with such a behavior that is inexplicable such a person is showing us how much work we still need to do!!!

Rita Chemaly

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Following the part one blog post ” Recent legal achievements about women in Lebanon… latest researches 2014“, here are some other national surveys that can help researchers prepare their desk reviews about what exists in Lebanon:

Do not forget the MDG follow up 2013-2014 launched last month by the Council of Minister in Lebanon.

the Latest report that is very well known is the MICS 2009, In my opinion we need to update it asap but here is it link:


Labour Market In Lebanon

This publication focuses on the Labour Market in Lebanon gathering a number of key indicators and figures from different sources.

Type of publication: Indicators.
Language: English, Arabic
Format: pdf file size 2.87MB  (Download file: English, Arabic)
Women in Numbers in Lebanon prepared by Maral tutelian for CAS april 2014
please stop giving me outdated data, we can create and find data as most of the ministries and national insitutions are publishing theirs online.
good luck for all researchers!! 🙂

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feminisation des noms de metiers en france rita chemaly
In arabic and French the “you” and “verbs” can be feminin or masculin, the verbs also can be “conjugated” whether we are addressing men or women.
NGOs in Lebanon began using the feminin part of each verb and we see those “/” at the end of the verbs used in press releases, social releases or others.
here is for example what Kafa wrote on her timeline, I  highlighted the feminisation of the signature, Also is what NCLW  feminised too.
feminisation in Lebanon by institutions Rita Chemaly
Feminisation in Lebanon by NGOs and Women activists Chemaly Rita
In France in March 11 , 1986 Fabius released a “circular” explaining the need to use “feminine” pronouns when we need to address a woman.
Lately a UMP Member of Parliament also got an “amend” because he didn’t respect a woman calling her “Madame le ministre” instead of using the pronoun “la ministre”
For those interested here is a copy of the Offical gazette in France.
Should we do the same in Lebanon? In my opinion having a clear circular about those issues is a must!
here is the article of the express telling the story of what happened on Monday 6 October 2014.

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Chemaly rita child marriage law Lebanon

Finally and after months of studies and meetings, the National Commission for Lebanese Women has presented to the Lebanese Parliament the Project Law (Draft Law) aiming at protecting children that are minors (less than 18 years old) from early marriages in Lebanon.

This draft law asks the amendment of article 483 of the penal code and makes the religious leader responsible of marriying children responsible of taking the approval of the Judge of the Juveniles prior to any tightening the knot of child brides or boys!

also the family of the children is made responsible of such marriages and mainly the “Wali” or the guardian/Tutor of the child that is getting married.

Also the draft law amends the competencies of the Judge of the Juvenile and the law of the Juveniles in Lebanon, obliging the guardians/tutor of minor children take the prior approval of the Judge of Juvenile for “special marriages”. The Judge will have to undertake a socio-economical analyse before giving his approval or denial of that right.

This Draft law that was presented by Member of Parliament Ghassan Moukheiber yesterday Monday 29 september 2014 at the Lebanese Parliament will now be studied by the Parliament Committees and than will go for a public vote on a General Assembly.

For me, as an activist working on that issue for so long, this is a first step, a huge step forward, all I aim for now is for the Parliament commissions to study the draft law, and Vote for it .

Children in Lebanon need protection from Marriage, from trafficking! this is a Step Forward!!

Hat for NCLW and for all those who are working from behind the scene toward protecting those vulnerable parties!

For those who wish to read the text of the draft law here it is:

Draft law protecting children from early marriage in Lebanon text of law as presented to the Lebanese Parliament -Rita Chemaly

Below is a infographic by Child not bride showing how early marriage impacts negatively the life of children and societies!

child marriage a global problem

Rita Chemaly

Below is the press review of the draft law registration at the Lebanese Parliament on Monday 29 of september 2014: http://www.neswacafe.com/newsneswa1.php?go=fullnews&newsid=4255



مشروع قانون لتنظيم زواج القاصرين


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CEDAW official Lebanon report is now ONLINE.

Lebanon has launched its official CEDAW Report on Women Status for 2014 today from the lawyers bar association.

for the arabic readers that want to read the report please do download the full PDF version by clicking on that link : Official CEDAW Lebanon 2014

CEDAW report has been prepared by NCLW (National Commission for Lebanese Women) and covers the period 2006-2014.

Rita Chemaly

Official CEDAW Lebanon 2014  .jpg

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Ouiii enfin, le gouvernement tunisien a annoncé le dépôt de la notification auprès du secrétaire général des Nations Unies, du retrait des réserves relatives à  la Convention sur l’élimination de toutes les formes de discrimination à l’égard des femmes la celebre (CEDAW).

La Tunisie avait ratifié cette convention en 1985 mais les réserves emises a la Conventions etaient nombreuses:  articles 9 (nationalité), l’article 15 (égalité devant la loi) et l’article 16 (droit matrimonial) .
Le Liban a adhere a la CEDAW, mais il a aussi emis des reserves qui le laissent Loin derriere entre les pays qui ne donnent pas leurs pleins droits aux femmes.

Pour ne citer que le droit des femmes libanaises a transmettre leur Nationalite a leurs enfants et maris (non nationaux) (sujet que je couvre amplement dans ce blog), les droits lies au mariage (aussi debattus dans ce blog), ( mariage, divorce, heritage, adoption…).

Rita Chemaly

pour plus d’infos sur la levee des reserves par la tunisie (bravo bravo) voila quelques liens:
Tunisie : Les réserves à la CEDAW enfin levées !  
Je Rêve : La Libanaise est citoyenne de « seconde classe » ?

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if you are interested in the status of Lebanon and whether Lebanon has ratified , accessed or signed a treaty, convention, protocol…

please do find attached this great map I found on the United Nations Website (United Nations treaty United Nations treaty collection, direct link, https://treaties.un.org/ , last accessed on January 21 2014.  )

the full treaty name is here, the date of signature or ratification is also featured

Good luck for all the researchers!

Rita Chemaly

LEBANON Treaties signed

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Le mouvement féministe au Liban cherche à assurer les pleins droits sociaux et politiques des femmes libanaises avant les élections de 2013. Leur vision : une sphère politique publique sans domination masculine, et où les femmes peuvent aussi être des actrices à part entières.

Sur la modification de la loi électorale, toujours en discussion et ce depuis 2005 et la première proposition faite par la Commission nationale présidée par M. Fouad Boutros, le mouvement féministe au Liban se mobilise via des réunions, des conférences de presses et la distribution de brochures expliquant l’importance de l’imposition d’un quota féminin temporairement.

Le rejet de la proposition de l’ancien ministre de l’intérieur et des municipalités Ziad Baroud d’un quota de 30% et l’approbation en 2010, par le Gouvernement d’un quota de 20% pour les élections municipales est amplement insuffisant aux dires des associations qui travaillent pour les droits des femmes au Liban.

Dans les faits, les femmes libanaises ont gagné après moult mobilisations la reforme de la loi électorale en 1953 qui a consacré leurs droits politiques. Mais vu les divers quotas confessionnels et géographiques qui existent au Liban, il est difficile aux femmes libanaises de percer le cercle de la domination masculine en politique.

D’ailleurs le plus grand nombre de femmes qui  ont joué ou jouent un rôle en politique, appartient à des grandes familles politiques, et ont hérité de leur poste, pour accéder à la sphère des affaires publiques libanaises amplement dominée par les hommes. (….) a lire la suite de l’article via ce lien…. droit des femmes libanaises rita chemaly participation politique quota et decision.

Rita Chemaly

Auteure et Chercheure en Sciences Politiques

Blog sur www.ritachemaly.wordpress.com.

For a list of all related articles in different languages:

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Venir à bout des stéréotypes de genre: Le rôle des lois / Dossier du Vendredi / Actualités et Analyses / Home Fr – AWID.

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